Inscribed rocks of Anatolian civilizations: Hattusa, Midas and Topada
Inscribed Rocks of Anatolian Civilizations: Hattusa, Midas and Topada
Inscribed rock of Hattusa
Yazılıkaya (Turkish; inscribed rock) was a sanctuary located about 1.5 km northeast of Hattuša, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey. This was a holy site for the Hittites within walking distance of the gates of the city. The sanctuary may have served as a place for the celebration of the arrival of the new year each spring, the New Year’s celebrations ceremonies. It consists of two open-air chambers surrounded by natural rock formations, the top of the chambers were not covered. This sancturary was in use at least since late 16th century BC, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late 13th century BC.
Location – Coordinates
Late Bronze Age (circa 1,600 BC – 1,200 BC) / Hittite Empire (1,600 BC – 1,178 BC)
Beckman, Gary. 2007. “From Hattusa to Carchemish: The latest on Hittite history”. In Chavalas, Mark W. Current Issues in the History of the Ancient Near East. Claremont, California: Regina Books. pp. 97–112. Seeher, Jürgen. 1995. “Forty Years in the Capital of the Hittites: Peter Neve Retires from His Position as Director of the Ḫattuša-Boğazköy Excavations” The Biblical Archaeologist 58.2, “Anatolian Archaeology: A Tribute to Peter Neve” (June 1995), pp. 63-67.
Inscribed rock of Midas
Midas Valley near a village in Eskişehir, Turkey known for its Phrygian archaeological remains and inscription mentioning Midas. The monument, discovered by W. M. Leake in 1800, has been studied by many travelers as an artifact unique to Phrygian architecture. Engraved by Charles Texier in 1834, it is called “Yazılıkaya” because of the long inscription on it. Texier describes the monument as follows: “It is located three miles away from the plateau and on the west side, in a large valley that stretches north and south and has all hills covered with forests. It is hard to describe the effect that this rock has on the spectators, supposedly to have occurred in the nature serendipitously in order to preserve these ancient writings that philology cannot solve. Everything around him is in harmony, and the harsh and wild image of the place, the pleasant picture of the rocks, emerge through the green ground of the plain..”
Location – Coordinates
Yazılıkaya Site (Turkey)
Relief (Sculpture), Hittite
Iron Age (circa 1,200 BC – 700 BC) / Phrygian Period
Eskişehir Lat: 39 40 00 N degrees minutes Lat: 39.6667 decimal degrees
Long: 031 10 00 E degrees minutes Long: 31.1667 decimal degrees
The monument, written in Luwian hieroglyphics of the Late Hittite period, is located near the village of Ağıllı in the district of Acıgöl (previously Topada) of Nevşehir. The inscription engraved on the leveled surface of a rock standing outward on the east side of a low plateau, surrounded by cliffs about 5 meters. high.
Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol 1, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000: 451-61, Plts 250-3.
Weeden, M. “Tuwati and Wasusarma: Imitating the Behavior of Assyria,” Iraq 72, 2010: 39-61.
Woudhuizen, F. C. “Great King Wasusarmas’ Victory Memorial at Topada,” Ancient West & East 6, 2007: 23-41.